EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH

RESEARCH IN EDUCATION

SYNOPSIS OF THE RESEARCH

(TOPIC)

“A STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF USE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING THE CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS AT SENIOR SECONDARY LEVEL”

SUBMITTED BY:

M.KANNAN

CONTENTS

S. NO. TOPIC

1. INTRODUCTION

2. NEED OF THE STUDY

3. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

4. DEFINITIONS OF THE KEY TERMS

5. DELIMITATIONS

6. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

7. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

8. HYPOTHESIS

9. METHODOLOGY

10. FINDINGS AND EDUCATIONAL
IMPLICATIONS

11. BIBLOGRAPHY

INTRODUCTION

There are many changes occurring daily in our classrooms and in the practice of teaching. Computer technology is one of the factors changing the face of our schools and creating special challenges. “Computer is the most talked topic in the present society and it is an area which has crossed all barriers and boundaries of age and profession adjusting everyone on the same platform which is “Learning”.

Computer technology is an interactive technology which involves students beyond watching listening and answering Questions. Students become actively involved in the ownership of learning.

Stopping and starting and getting feedback are two of the most distinguishing characteristics of interactive technology. Teachers or students can stop interactive technology such as CD-ROM, in one place and jump[ ahead to another based upon teacher discretion or student interest. This allows for expansion or clarification of student goals or questions. Software programs on the computer give students immediate feedback on correct answer or the consequences made. CAI (Computer aided instruction) and ILS (Integrated learning system) assist teachers in developing literacy, computer programming and problem solving depending on the software and hardware selected. Interaction enhances the usability and potential because of the shift of the responsibility to the learner through technology.

A little more than 10 years ago computers were introduced in schools in India under the project “computer literacy and studies in schools” (CLASS). Teachers were given special training. Children liked using computer, although they were not given attainment target. When the pilot phase of the project came to a close, almost two thousand six hundred schools had already been covered under the scheme. This was perhaps one of the remarkable innovations in school education in India in recent times. The implementations of the project provided a unique experience. The new scheme now uses PCs.

Now regarding teaching physics at senior secondary level, it has been found out that in the following topics in class XI physics the traditional methods have been less effective very difficult and more boring.

1) Three dimensional motion
2) Einstein’s theory of relativity
3) Rotational motion
4) Atomic structure and interatomic forces
5) Molecular forces
6) Blackbody spectrum
7) Simple harmonic motion
8) Differential equation of simple harmonic motion
9) Concept of phase in oscillations and waves
10) Numerical Concepts in Oscillation
11) Derivation of plane progressive wave.
12) The phenomenon of interference of waves
13) The production and mathematical treatment of stationary waves.
14) The concept of beats and the analytical treatment
15) Doppler effect in sound

In the same manner, the student’s interest and their grasping ability were less while teaching following units in class XII physics using traditional methods.

1) The properties of electric charges
2) Concept of electric field
3) Dipole system
4) Electrostatic potential
5) Van de graaf generator
6) Difference between e.m.f. and potential difference
7) Drift velocity of electrons in metals
8) Seebeck effect
9) Electrolytic Conduction
10) The concept of e.c.e.
11) Lorentz force
12) The concept of magnetic field strength
13) Tangent law
14) Fleming’s left hand rule and right hand rule and their uses
15) Elements of earth’s magnetic field
16) Atomic theory behind the properties of magnetic materials
17) A.C. generator
18) LCR circuit
19) Nature of electromagnetic waves
20) Wave theory of light
21) Diffraction in light
22) Single slit diffraction experiment
23) Polarisation of light
24) Spectrometer experiment to find refractive index.
25) The difference between magnification and magnifying power
26) The concept of resolving power of optical instruments
27) J.J. Thompson’s experiment to find e / m of electron
28) The laws of photoelectric effect
29) Alpha-particle scattering and Rutherford atom model
30) Hydrogen spectrum
31) Packing fraction
32) Numericals on binding energy
33) Nuclear fission reaction
34) Nuclear reactors
35) Nuclear fusion reaction
36) Alpha decay and beta decay
37) The crystal system
38) B.C.C. and F.C.C. structures
39) Covalent bonds
40) Potential barrier in P-N junction diode.
41) Transistor working as an amplifier
42) Transistor working as an oscillator
43) Doppler effect in light
44) Luminosity of stars and galaxies

If Computer technology (with multimedia) is used the above topics can be made very interesting as well as more informative.

The following multimedia can be widely used;

1. Videodisks: Information is transmitted through auditory and visual media. Information on the video disk is accessible on the press of a button. There is a tremendous amount of information available on videodisks. They are simple to use.

2. LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) panel: An LCD panel interfaces a computer and an overhead projector to combine multimedia techniques. This can be visualized by the whole class.

3. CD-ROM: CD-ROMs need to be connected to a computer and are easy to use. A computer disk (CD) is put in the CD player and then played. Students interact with the computer to highlight words or pictures as it reads. Click a word or a picture with a mouse and the computer supplements students’ learning with definitions of unfamiliar words. The CDs are powerful motivations for reading and reference. Encyclopedia of 24 volumes can be stored on one CD.

4. MODEM: Modem allows student’s potential for accessing telecommunications. Telecommunications require a telephone line, communication software and usually an online service provider. Networking can also be used to send message and seek information. A modem opens the door to the information world like “Internet”.

NEED OF THE STUDY

There is no doubt the introduction of computer technology can make tremendous impact in the school curriculum. The students can cultivate more interest in subjects like Physics by the introduction of use of Computer technology. So far by and large this subject has been considered as a dry subject and this trend can definitely change by the use of computer technology and thereby in our country we can produce a pool of very efficient and eminent scientists who can uplift the country’s image in the world arena.

Computer technology can be effectively used to teach the concepts of physics. For example atomic structure, atomic forces, atom models can be explained with custom animation using MS PowerPoint. In case of Rutherford atom model experiment, going for polonium and gold foil is difficult as well as costly for the students. These experiments can be animated and shown to the students. Even students themselves can be taught to conduct such experiments using custom animation
In computers. This will definitely enhance their understanding. Nuclear fission reaction can not be shown practically but students can have access to websites like http://www.encarta.msn.com, http://www.northernlight.com
& search’ engines in Internet to visualize such reaction in computers. This will definitely create interest on the subject in their minds. Nuclear reactors can not be visited easily due to security reasons but students can see them and their working through websites.

Using website like http://www.sdss.org
the students can have access to digital pictures of galaxies, their beautiful colours and shapes. From these students themselves study the properties of galaxies or quasars. Such knowledge will remain in their memory lifelong.

Theory of relativity can not be clearly explained by classroom teaching as this requires wide imagination power. Neither we can conduct experiments in lab to prove this theory. Here comes computer technology in handy. Websites are available to see such (imaginary) experiments in computers.

The three dimensional motion, rotational motion, simple harmonic motion, waves and oscillations can be interestingly learned using multimedia as three- dimensional figures and animations are available just by a click away.

When teachers make some topical projects and show to the students, the students in turn appreciate the hard work and efforts of the teachers and this helps a good rapport between the teacher and the students. As students tend to pay full concentration in learning through computers under the guidance of the teacher even discipline problem among students is much reduced as they are all busily engaged in the learning process.

Doppler effect, LCR circuit, a.c. generator, Van de graff generator can be effectively taught through computers which are otherwise difficult through the traditional methods.

Even numericals & derivations can be taught by means of programmed learning through computers.

In schools where computer technology has been used to teach subjects like Physics the results have been better. The students have shown remarkable increase in their academicachievement. The following schools have already adopted computer technology.

1. Modern School
2. Tagore International School (East of Kailash)
3. Tagore International School (Vasant Vihar)
4. CRPF Public School

In all these contexts the study of effectiveness of use of computer technology in teaching physics becomes not only
Very important but also very urgent. Since we have problems in traditional methods of teaching physics and since computer technology is available in plenty, the above study will yield very fruitful results.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

“A STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF USE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING THE CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS AT SENIOR SECONDARY LEVEL”.

DEFINITIONS OF THE KEY TERMS

COMPUTER: It is an electronic machine which has the capability of accepting data, storing and processing at a very high speed and finally gives us the required information.


INTERACTIVE TECHNOLOGY: Technology that enables students to interact with the technology by stopping and starting, viewing select pieces of answering questions, thus effecting the output of the technology.

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY: It includes computers, computer discs (CD), floppies, audio equipments, Liquid crystal display (LCD), mouse and modem.

MULTEMEDIA: The term for using many hardware and software including or combination of computer data, graphics, audio and video.

INTERNET: An international electronic mail (e-mail) network connecting schools and universities, military, government and commercial computer network. It is the main connector of all sub-networks. Networking allows for inexpensive and rapid sharing of information of ideas throughout the world.

DELIMITATIONS:
1. The study is confined to senior secondary level only.

2. The study will be conduct keeping in mind the Central Board of Secondary Education Syllabus for senior secondary physics.

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following objectives will be kept in mind during the study.

1) To study how far the computers help the children in their intellectual development like critical thinking, problem solving etc.
2) To study how far the computer technology helps the students to understand the basic concepts of Physics like atomic structure, nuclear energy etc.
3) To determine how far the computer technology helps the students to understand the difficult physical concepts like oscillations, simple harmonic motion and waves.
4) To study how the numerical ability of the students can be enhanced by the use of computer technology.
5) To compare computer operating children with their normal (non-computer) counterparts.
6) Also concerning the teachers teaching Physics at senior secondary level in Delhi. I will know the problems and difficulties they face while teaching physics through traditional methods.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Ms. Usha Abrol and Mr. N. Khan undertook similar research work. They studied the impact of television on the children. The study was conducted among the Delhi School children. The findings suggest that TV is a potential source of learning. It is an active process of selecting, integrating, evaluating and interpreting information according to one’s own scheme. Such related materials will be meticulously referred while studying the effectiveness of use of computer technology in teaching Physics. Studies dealing with intellectual development of the children will be carefully referred. “Indian Educational Review” journal published by NCERT, too will be referred.

In addition to the above, materials related to software programmes will be referred so as operate the computer for maximum benefit.

HYPOTHESIS

Research studies in accordance with educational technology like T.V., Video instructional packages & languages faster. For example when suitable educational technology was used in the teaching of Marathi as first language the abilities concerning reading and writing of ordinary and backward pupils were developed to a great extent. It would be very interesting to see how the use of computers including CDs and internet can produce vital interest in Physics and enhance the understanding of even show learners as far as difficult and mathematical concepts of Physics are concerned.

METHODOLOGY

SUBJECT: A group of 200 Children as experimental group from different schools in Delhi having computer facilities like multimedia and internet and a group of 200 children as control group from different schools in Delhi without any computer facilities will be selected for the sample of the study. Almost 50% of the subjects will be from either sex.

PROCEDURE: The following tools will be used to study the effectiveness of use of computer technology.

i. Basic identification data schedule.
ii. I.Q. assessment; It will be done with the help of Raven’s progressive matrices test.
iii. Academic achievement assessment.

DATA COLLECTION: After getting permission from Heads of the institution the basic demographic information about the children such as name, sex, age, class, parents education, profession etc. will be collected with the assurance that it is only for the study purpose.

During the I.Q. test, students would be rightly motivated and necessary steps will be taken to avoid consultation by students among themselves.

Academic achievement of the students will be noted from the examination result from school record in terms of percentage of secured marks.

DATA ANALYSIS: The collected data will be subjected to various statistical treatment such as chi- square (x2), analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test for drawing information.

Before conduction actual study a preliminary study will be conducted on two children having computer facilities and two children who do not have computer facilities.

FINDINGS & EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS

The findings of this study will definitely help us to known how far the introduction of computer technology makes the teaching concepts of physics more interesting and lively especially at senior secondary level. The physics students will not remain just as passive learners but they themselves will actively involve in creative thinking, problem solving methods and will also make on their own projects and conduct research studies like collecting digital pictures of galaxies from websites and studying their properties. No doubt, the use of computer technology in teaching Physics will produce revolution in the learning of Physics.

In the past few years we have seen a sharp decline in the enrollment of the students for science group especially at senior secondary level. This trend will definitely change if people come to known the effective ness of use of computer technology in teaching the concepts the concepts the physics. Moreover governments may introduce more computers in the schools which will pave the way for more human resource in science and technology available, so that the country’s image and wealth may be boosted up.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1) RESEARCH IN EDUCATION: Seventh Edition, by John W. Best and James V. khan published by prentice- hall of India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi-110 001.

2) METHODOLOGY OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: by Lokesh Koul published by Vikas Publishing House, New delhi-2.

3) INDIAN EDUCATIONAL ABSTRACTS (issue 5 July 1998) published by NCERT, New Delhi-16.

4) COMPUTER LITERACY Edited by S.N. Prasad Utpal Mallik published by NCERT, New Delhi-16

5) LEARNING ADVANCE COMPUTER CONCEPTS written and edited by Sharbjeet and Raman published by Brinwave Informatics Publishing Company, New Delhi-26

6) EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES AND INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATION written by Dr. M.P. Chhaya.

7) World book 1998 multimedia encyclopedia. International Book English Edition.

8) RESEARCHES IN CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY edited by Ashok K. Srivastava published by NCERT, New Delhi-16.

9) RESEARCHES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT edited by Updesh K.Bevil published by NCERT, New Delhi-16.

10) Fundamentals of Physics for class XI by Brij lal and Subrahmanyan published by S. Chand & Co. Ltd.
11) Physics for Class XII Part 1 by NCERT.
12) Physics for Class XII Part II by NCERT.

Please click the following link for some more details.

http://researchineducation-kannan.blogspot.com/

RESEARCH FINDINGS
TOPIC
“A STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF USE OF COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IN TEACHING THE CONCEPTS OF PHYSICS AT SENIOR SECONDARY LEVEL”

M.KANNAN1 and AHRAR HUSAIN2
1. M.Kannan, IASE, Faculty of Education, JMI, N. Delhi-25.
2. Prof. Ahrar Husain, Head, IASE, Faculty of Education, JMI, N. Delhi-25.

1. INTRODUCTION

As we already know, technology has a profound impact on the way we live. Although the Computer has been to existence for some time now, it has yet to be fully integrated into the learning process. With the emergence of the internet has come a heightened awareness that technology can be instrumental in the creation, delivery, and effective consumption of content. Technology and the Internet can be used to enhance the learning process. The benefits, both intrinsic and extrinsic, are numerous.

Cost Effectiveness:
Information dissemination through computers and the internet can be dramatically more cost efficient. A student needing help can access tutors online to answer an individual question rather than meeting with a tutor for an hour.

Just-In-Time
Students can access information closer to the time the knowledge is needed rather than obtaining information that may never be used or may be used in the long-term.

Learner Controlled
Technology has given the individual grater authority over the learning environment. Learning does not have to occur in a classroom. It may occur at one’s own desk or the home.

Self-Paced
An individual may proceed through a course or program as the information is fully comprehended. Students can convert information to knowledge on their own timetable.

Interactivity
Advancements in technology and the subsequent growth in the internet have led to the development of interactive learning environments which creates a renewed interest in the educational process. Individuals can play an active role in the learning process rather than passively listening to a teacher lecture.

Accessibility
Individuals in various places can effectively communicate with co-workers or instructors without being in the same room.

Uniformity of Content
The information delivered can be consistent to all users, therefore reducing the possibility for misinterpretations.

The interest and motivation for physics is lost mainly during secondary and senior secondary education. Physicists’ goals are now to make physics more accessible to students and to counteract its current negative image by developing innovative multimedia and Internet websites aimed at all ages. As the Multimedia and Internet are enjoyed and used by the young generation all over the world it is the best method to tell pupils and students about the fascination of physics. The Internet has a previously unknown flexibility and dynamics. One can update contents easily and immediately contrary to most other mass media.

2. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The following objectives were kept in mind during the study.
1) To study how far the computers help the children in their intellectual development like critical thinking and problem solving.
2) To study how far the computer technology helps the students to understand the basic concepts of physics like atomic structure, wave theory of light, superposition principle in waves, LCR circuits, semiconductors etc.
3) To determine how far the computer technology helps the students to understand the difficult physical concepts.
4) To study how the numerical ability of the students can be enhanced by the use of computer technology.
5) To compare computer operating children with their normal (non-computer) counterparts.
6) The problems and difficulties faced by the teachers while teaching physics through traditional methods at senior secondary level in Delhi will be known and studied over.

3. METHOD AND PROCEDURE

After consulting the experts in physics a questionnaire was prepared and administered to fifty teachers. This contained questions on teachers’ qualifications, their teaching experience, computer training, teaching methods, difficult topics in class 11 and 12 to be taught by lecture method etc. There were also questions related to computer technology. This questionnaire was circulated to fifty physics PGTs teaching physics at senior secondary level in government, government aided and public schools and their responses were studied and systematically analyzed. NPSC (National Progressive Schools Conference) school students were considered to undergo achievement tests. (Fig. 1)


FIGURE 1 TOOLS USED

The topics for the achievement tests were identified by the teachers teaching physics at senior secondary level in Delhi. Five difficult topics in class 11 and fifteen difficult topics in class 12 were considered.
Two experimental groups and one control group (Fig. 2) were considered for the research study among the students. They are;
Experimental group 1 – learning by computer assisted teaching
Experimental group 2 – learning by accessing computers without the aid of the teacher
Control group 3 -learning by traditional method of teaching.

In group 1 the teacher (the Investigator) used the computer technology in his teaching. In group 2 the students used computer technology to learn the concepts of physics without the aid of the teacher. In group 3 the teacher (the Investigator) used only the traditional method. In class 11 totally one hundred forty three
students were considered in all the three groups (the average number of students in each group being forty eight). In class 12 totally one hundred thirty six students were considered in all the three groups (the average number of students in each group being forty five).Thus the total number of teachers from whom responses to the questionnaire were obtained was fifty and the total number of students (Fig. 3) who underwent the achievement tests was two hundred seventy nine.

The Investigator himself prepared software materials for superposition principle, stationary (standing) waves and Doppler effect in class 11 topics. For class 12 the Investigator prepared software materials for interference, polarization, optical instruments and Rutherford atom model in the form of powerpoint presentations. The Investigator used two operating systems of the computer technology for the preparation of software packages. The Investigator developed a website http://makadelhi.tripod.com using web hosting machine Lycos. This contains ‘Internet Search’ article (prepared by the Investigator), collection of search engines, educational and physics websites by which the Investigator obtained materials pertaining to physics. The software materials were prepared for both classes 11 and 12 using MS-DOS of Windows-98. MS word and MS Powerpoint were widely used in MS-DOS. In addition to the figures, animations and additional information, sound animation also was added to make the presentation of computer materials interesting and lively. Moreover they were customized in such a way that at a particular difficult point the presentation may be stopped for a while so that even the weaker students can catch up with the class. Before the presentation of these software materials to the students it was ensured that there was no factual or linguistic error in the presentation. It was also ensured that the computer system worked well without failure. The Investigator procured a CD (SCIENCE MASTER PHYSICS 1) to teach waves and simple harmonic motion in class 11. Also in class 12 for
diffraction, total internal reflection, capacitance, resistance, magnetic properties, magnetic field, a.c. circuits, waves behave like particles, energy bands and semiconductors, laser and broadcasting system the Investigator procured a CD (SCIENCE MASTER PHYSICS 2). Lectures were prepared in all these twenty topics. In case of computer assisted teaching group (i.e. group 1), the teacher (the
Investigator) used the software materials using computer while delivering the lectures to explain the concepts of physics. After each topic was taught achievement test was conducted under the invigilation of the teacher. The test papers were evaluated and the marks obtained by the students were tabulated. Thus the data were obtained for group 1 students (computer assisted teaching group) in all the five topics of class 11 and in all the fifteen topics of class 12. In (only) computer accessed learning group (i.e. group 2) the students themselves learned the concepts of physics by operating computer with the software materials provided by the Investigator. After each topic achievement test was conducted under the invigilation of the teacher. The test papers were evaluated and the marks obtained by the students in percentage, were tabulated. Thus the data were obtained for group 2 students (computer accessed learning group) in all the five topics of class 11 and in all the fifteen topics of class 12. In traditional method group (i.e. group 3) only the lectures were given by the teacher to explain the concepts of physics and software materials were not used. After each topic was taught this way, achievement test was conducted under the invigilation of the teacher. The test papers were evaluated and the marks obtained by the students were tabulated. Thus the data were obtained for group 3 students (traditional method of teaching group) in all the five topics of class 11 and in all the fifteen topics of class 12. The data thus obtained for all the three groups in all the twenty topics of physics at senior secondary level were carefully studied over and analyzed.
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The teachers’ responses to the questionnaire were astounding. They expressed the difficulties involved on the part of the students to learn the basic concepts in certain topics in physics by traditional method. All the teachers agreed that the latest information available on internet could be profitably used in

the classroom to make teaching of physics more lively and effective. They opined three dimensional figures available in CDs would lead the students to the better understanding of the physical concepts like three dimensional motion, atomic structure etc. Though many of them have not undergone any substantial training in computers they expressed their desire for the same and are willing to adopt computer technology in the teaching of physics at senior secondary level. They agree that what can not be performed in the physics laboratory can be done through virtual experiments on the computer screen. Although many are not
aware of the selected websites in physics they are willing to know and use the same for the benefit of the students. Eighty eight percent of the teachers mentioned many experiments could be clearly and easily taught by powerpoint presentation. Ninety two percent of the teachers responded that using slides in MS-powerpoint presentation and LCD projector many pictures (say for example interior part of a nuclear reactor) could be shown to the students which would enhance the interest of the students in physics. All the teachers agreed that the three dimensional figures in computer CDs would lead the students to the better understanding of the physical concepts. As pictures and video clips from the computer often capture the eyes of the perceiver ninety two percent of the teachers feel the students will pay more attention this way to the teaching of physical concepts. Ninety eight percent of the teachers agreed on the fact that simulation of many experiments like nuclear fission, scattering phenomenon etc. could be done on the computer screen. More than ninety percent of the teachers knew they could make their own lesson plans and modules in computers and also mentioned that they would have more job satisfaction by making their own lesson modules and presenting the same to the students. The teachers were motivated to follow ‘computer assisted teaching’ and expressed the opinion that computer technology could be efficiently and copiously used to teach many concepts in physics. Seventy four percent of the teachers think teaching of problem solving skills will be made more effective and interesting as programmed (step – by – step) learning is possible through computers. In the context of the salient suggestions of the teachers with regards to the use of computer technology for the effective teaching of physics the present research
was undertaken. The achievement tests for the students were conducted on the basis of difficult topics identified by the teachers teaching class 11 and class 12 according to C.B.S.E. syllabus.
In senior secondary physics when the teacher used adequate computer materials along with his well prepared lectures it yielded good results. The students understood the basic concepts in physics very well and performed better in the achievement tests. They gained good knowledge by the adequate information given in the computer materials. The animations and the coloured diagrams for different devices aroused their interest. The various applications of the concepts inculcated great appreciation of physics in the minds of the students. The step by step programmed learning of numerical problems with the explanation of the teacher helped out the students to view them as gateways of comprehension of physics and not as nightmares. Above all the students had great admiration for the teacher as he taught the students with his well planned lesson materials and also well equipped computer materials. This went a long way for the students to perform better in the achievement tests. In simple harmonic motion a typical tough numerical problem was solved by a good number of students of computer assisted teaching group. No student in traditional method of teaching group was able to do this numerical problem. Remarkably in stationary (standing waves) animation of production of stationary waves impressed the students very much. Students could easily comprehend the difference between stationary waves and plane progressive waves by means of the table shown in the PowerPoint presentation. Solution of a numerical problem in a programmed way also helped the students to do well in this achievement test. In Doppler effect too the students could understand the effect by computer assisted teaching very well. The illustrated example in the software helped the students to understand well how frequency of sound apparently gets changed due to the relative motion between the source and the observer. Production of shock waves is additional information to them. The applications put up in the powerpoint presentation made the students to appreciate Doppler effect. In class 11 in four out of five tests computer assisted teaching group (group 1) students did better than those who learned by the traditional method of teaching (group 3). In all the five tests computer assisted teaching group (group 1) students did better than those students who learned by accessing the computer technology without the aid of the teacher (group 2).
Computer assisted teaching group students consistently understood and did the tests well in class 12. When the teacher used the computer
technology, diffraction (one of the difficult phenomena) was well understood by the students. Students were motivated as the teacher explained diffraction using the figure and graph by computer CD. In optical instruments magnification of an insect by simple microscope impressed the students very much. Explanation of the teachers with vivid figures of compound microscopes and astronomical telescopes helped the students to learn the concepts well. Animation of charging of capacitor and the graphical representation of energy stored in capacitor helped the students to learn capacitance very well. The diagrams of domain structure in ferromagnetism, magnetic field lines and uniform magnetic field along with the explanation of the teacher enabled the students to learn the concepts very well. Dual nature of waves also was well understood by the students by means of diagrams of photoelectric effect and Einstein’s photoelectric equation accompanied with the explanation given by the teacher. The teacher used virtual experiment for Rutherford’s alpha particle scattering experiment on computer screen using PowerPoint presentation which produced good results. Additional information like velocity of electron in its orbit, applications of the model aroused the interest of the students in the subject. In laser the unique diagrams of spontaneous and stimulated emission and coherent nature of particles in the software helped the students to understand the basic concepts very well. Diagrams of transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves and the diagrams connected to amplitude and frequency modulation given in software helped the students to comprehend the communication system well. Though the students who used computer technology without the help of the teacher (group 2) did well in some topics like resistance and a.c circuits in many topics like diffraction, polarization, total internal reflection, waves behave like particles they struggled to understand the basic concepts and hence they could not do well in the tests. Traditional method of teaching has not been very effective consistently as students failed to get interested in the subject and failed to have access to extra information. These students finally could not achieve better. In class 12 in thirteen out of fifteen tests computer assisted teaching group students (group 1) did better than those who learned by the traditional method of teaching (group 3). In ten tests computer assisted teaching group (group 1) students did better than those students who learned by accessing the computer technology without the aid of the teacher (group 2).When all the twenty topics were considered at the senior secondary level the mean value of scores for computer assisted teaching group (group 1) is 56.4, the mean value for computer accessed learning (without the aid of the teacher) group (i.e. group 2) is 42.97 and the mean value for traditional method group (group 3) is 40.11 (Fig. 4).

In observing the over all data very critically it is seen that the least number of students got 0 to 33% in computer assisted teaching group (group 1). The mean value of percentage of the students getting 0 to 33% marks for group 1 (computer assisted teaching) for overall topics is calculated as 17.65, for group 2 (computer accessed learning without the aid of the teacher)) as 36.45 and for group 3 (traditional method) as 40.34. The highest number of students in group 1 got 67 to 100%. The mean value of percentage of the students getting 67 to 100% marks for group 1(computer assisted teaching) is 37.99. At the same time least number of students got 67 to 100% in traditional method (group 3). The mean value of percentage of the students getting 67 to 100% marks for group 3 (traditional method) is as less as 10.46. Number of students getting 67 to 100% in only computer accessed learning group (group 2) lies in between that of the first and the third. The mean value of percentage of the students getting 67 to 100%

marks for group 2 (computer accessed learning without the aid of the teacher)) is 19.76. This very clearly shows the very positive effect of use of computer technology in teaching the concepts of physics at senior secondary level.
Finally from the statistical analysis it has been observed that there is no correlation between scores of any two groups; then t-tests were conducted to find out any significant difference between the groups. There is significant difference between computer assisted teaching method (group 1) and method of learning by accessing the computer technology without the aid of the teacher (group 2) as t – calculated value 2.605 exceeds t – critical value 2.021 for df = 38. The null hypothesis is rejected at the .05 level and the t – calculated value signifies computer assisted teaching method is more effective than the method of learning by having access to computer technology without the aid of the teacher.

COMPARISON df Significant level t – critical value t – calculated value
GROUP 1
AND
GROUP 2
38
0.05
2.021
2.605

There is also significant difference between computer assisted teaching method (group 1) and traditional teaching method (group 3) since t – calculated value 4.328 exceeds t – critical value 2.021 for df = 38.The null hypothesis is rejected at the .05 level and the result indicates computer assisted teaching method is more effective and makes great difference compared to the traditional (lecture) method of teaching physics.

COMPARISON df Significant level t – critical value t – calculated value
GROUP 1
AND
GROUP 3
38
0.05
2.021
4.328

But there is no significant difference between method of learning by accessing the computer technology without the aid of the teacher (group 2) and traditional method of teaching (group 3) as the calculated value of t is less than the critical

value of t. Here since t value 0.619 is less than 2.021 for df = 38 the null hypothesis is accepted.

COMPARISON df Significant level t – critical value t – calculated value
GROUP 2
AND
GROUP 3
38
0.05
2.021
0.619

Hence from the analysis of data, the critical data observation and the statistical method we very clearly and precisely come to know that the computer assisted teaching is the best method to teach the concepts of physics at senior secondary level. There is no much profitable learning by the students just by using computer technology to learn the concepts of physics without the aid of the teacher or by the traditional method of teaching physics.

REFERENCES AND WEB RESOURCES

1) RESEARCH IN EDUCATION: Seventh Edition, by John W. Best and James V. khan published by prentice- hall of India Pvt. Ltd.,New Delhi-1.

2) METHODOLOGY OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: by Lokesh Koul published by Vikas Publishing House, New delhi-2.

3) COMPUTER LITERACY Edited by S.N. Prasad Utpal Mallik published by NCERT, New Delhi-16

4) LEARNING ADVANCE COMPUTER CONCEPTS written and edited by Sharbjeet and Raman published by Brinwave Informatics Publishing Company, New Delhi-26

5) EFFECTIVE TEACHING STRATEGIES AND INNOVATIONS IN EDUCATION written by Dr. M.P. Chhaya.

6) RESEARCHES IN CHILD DEVELOPMENT edited by Updesh K.Bevil published by NCERT, New Delhi-16.

7) Mr. R. Srinivasan (2002), ‘Educational Technology,’ Edited by Dr. Satya
Pal Ruhela, Faculty of Education, J.M.I. (Central University) New
Delhi-18.

8) Ms. Beena Shah (2002), ‘Computers in Education’, ‘Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, J.M.I. (Central University) New Delhi-18.
9) Mr. R.S. Pareck (2002), ‘Audio-Visual Aids in Education and Research’, ‘Educational Technology’, Faculty of Education, J.M.I., New Delhi-18.
10) Prof. Mukaopadhyay (NIEPA) (2001), ‘Total Quality Management in Education’.
11) Fundamentals of Physics for class XI by Brij lal and Subrahmanyan published by S. Chand & Co. Ltd.
12) Physics for Class XII Part 1 by NCERT.
13) Physics for Class XII Part II by NCERT.
14) http://www.encarta.msn.com/
15) http://www.northernlight.com/
16) http://timss.bc.edu/
17) http://www.statsoft.com/
18) http://www.neatideas.com/cc.htm/
19) http://mathworld.wolfram.com/CorrelationCoefficient.html/
20) http://www.physics.arizona.edu/
21) http://modeling.asu.edu/
22) www.physics.umd.edu/
23) http://www.drcdrom.com/
24) http://www.iop.org/
25) http://www.aapt.org/
26) http://www.physicscentral.com/
27) http://www.hep.net/
28) http://www.physicsforums.com/
29) http://www.researchguide.com/
30) http://makadelhi.tripod.com/

For complete research work please refer

https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/0B1-VxIZMD3Q9bUNOb2xjLUo1cTg

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