1. Teaching should be activity based. At different levels students should learn by doing. Project works should be undertaken in real life situations like visiting hospitals, slums, old age home, traffic signals, parks, gardens and other historically important places.
2. By enacting a skit students may learn a lesson or value.
3. Learning should be made interesting and enjoyable by using computer technology through CDs, LCD etc.
4. Teaching should be student friendly. More group discussions should be encouraged.
5. More outdoor activities should be conducted keeping in mind cubs and bulbuls, scouts and guides etc. Environmental activities like nature walk, bird watching should be encouraged.
6. More house wise competitions especially on drawing and painting should be conducted. Experts should be called to teach art and craft in activity periods. Good and talented children should be appreciated and rewarded. Students’ handiwork also should be displayed on different occasions in the school.
7. Students should be encouraged to read newspapers, write articles and do book review. Class libraries should be made up and effectively used.
8. Career counselling programmes should be organized for the students to know various avenues.
9. Students should have class seminars. They should make PowerPoint presentations.
10. Students should be encouraged to take part in exhibitions.
11. Students should be encouraged to sing and learn word of God (THE HOLY BIBLE) happily.
12. On sports days mass participation should be encouraged.
13. Lessons should be taught in smaller fragments.There should be continuous and comprehensive assessment instead of stressful examinations.
14. Time management skills should be taught to the children.
SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE
SIMPLE QUESTIONS ON ENERGY
1) What can be called as a good source of energy?
2) Define energy.
3) What is a good fuel?
4) What was the source of heat energy in ancient times?
5) What is the source that met the growing demands of energy?
6) Why do we need to conserve fossil fuels?
7) What are the disadvantages of using fossil fuels?
8) Which are the three main gases that are released while burning fossil fuels and what do they form?
9) What are the two main problems caused by fossil fuels which are being discussed now- a- days?
10) How can the pollution caused by fossil fuels be reduced?
11) What is the major fuel for generating electricity?
12) Explain the process of thermoelectric production.
13) Describe any model/experiment for this.
14) Write a short note on thermal power plant?
15) Why are many thermal power plants set up near coal and oil fields?
16) Give one word-Fuel is burnt to produce heat energy which is converted into electrical energy.
17) What is converted into electricity in hydro power plants?
18) What is the energy of flowing water and water at a height?
19) Why are hydro power plants mostly associated with dams?
20) Where does India’s quarter of energy requirement come from?
21) Why are high-rise dams built on rivers in hydro power plants?
22) Explain how hydro power plants generate electricity?
23) What type of energy is hydro power?
24) What are the problems caused by the construction of dams?
25) What happens to the vegetation when it is submerged under water? Name the gas it produces?
26) Name two places which are opposed to the construction of dams? (In India)
1) One which is easily accessible, easy to transport and store and be economical.
2) Energy, capacity of a physical system to perform work.
3) One which produces considerable heat, not too much smoke and easily available in the market.
5) Fossil fuels-Coal and Petroleum
6) They are non-renewable resources.
7) a.Causes pollution
b. Acid rain
c. Green house effect
d. Consumption of fossil fuel
e. Causes diseases related to respiration.
f. Environmental disbalance.
g. Deforestation which ultimately cuts the source of oxygen.
8) Oxygen. Nitrogen and Sulphur. Their oxides form acid rain.
9) Global Warming and Green house effect.
10) By increasing the efficiency of the combustion process and using various techniques to reduce the escape of harmful gases and ashes into the surroundings.
11) Fossil fuels.
12) The moving fluid acts on the blades to spin them and impart energy to the rotor. We need to move the fan, rotor blade, with speed which would turn the shaft of the dynamo and convert the mechanical energy into electrical energy.
13) Pressure cooker, steam pipe, tennis ball fitted with metal sheets (Rotor blade), Dynamo and bulb.
14) Fossil fuels are burnt every day in power stations to heat up water to produce steam which further runs the turbine to generate electricity.
15) Because the transmission of electricity is more efficient than transporting coal or petroleum over the same distance.
16) Thermal power plant.
17) Potential energy of falling water.
18) Flowing water-Kinetic energy
Water at height-Potential energy
19) Because very few water-falls could be used as a source of potential energy.
20) Hydro power plants.
21) To obstruct the flow of water and collect water in larger resources.
22) The kinetic energy of flowing water is converted into potential energy. The water from the high level in the dam is carried through pipes to the turbine, at the bottom of the dam.
23) Renewable source of energy.
24)1. Can be constructed only in hilly terrains.
2. Agricultural land and human habitation get submerged.
3. Large eco-systems are destroyed.
4. Vegetation submerged, gives rise to green house gas.
5. Creates problem of satisfactory rehabilitation of displaced people.
25) Vegetation rots under anaerobic conditions and gives rise to Methane.
26) Tehri dam on the Ganga river and Sardar Sarovar project on the river Narmada.
Courtesy; Jenefa Joanna
1 My son, do not forget my law,
But let your heart keep my commands;
2 For length of days, and long life
And peace they will add to you.
3 Let not mercy and truth forsake you;
Bind them around your neck,
Write them on the table of your heart,
4 And so find favour and high esteem
In the sight of God and man.
5 Trust in the LORD with all your heart,
And lean not on your own understanding;
6 In all your ways acknowledge Him,
And He shall direct your paths.
7 Do not be wise in your own eyes;
Fear the LORD and depart from evil.
8 It will be health to your flesh,
And strength to your bones.
9 Honour the LORD with your possessions,
And with the firstfruits of all your increase;
10 So your barns will be filled with plenty,
And your vats will overflow with new wine.
11 My son, do not despise the chastening of the LORD,
Nor detest His correction;
12 For whom the LORD loves He corrects,
Just as a father the son in whom he delights.
13 Happy is the man who finds wisdom,
And the man who gains understanding;
14 For her proceeds are better than the profits of silver,
And her gain than fine gold.
Proverbs 3;1-14 (HOLY BIBLE)
TIPS FOR MATHS PAPER
1) First things first i.e. answer first the questions you know.
2) Write the question number properly.
3) In question of linear equations use graph paper.
4) Read the question carefully and don’t jump to conclusions by just reading half the question.
5) Always conclude the answer in full sentence while solving application problems.
6) Always write relevant units wherever necessary.
7) Learn conversion between cm, metre, decimeter and litres.
8) Always check while copying data while turning to next page.
9) Always try to do questions involving figure on same page rather than turning the page for referring the figure.
10) Always have the habit of drawing rough diagrams.
11) Describe figure properly and shade region clearly.
12) If you find any question is wrong then don’t leave it unattempted.
13) If you repeat any question make sure you cancel the previous one.
14) On exam eve relax yourself.
15) Don’t study anything before exam but only revise.
16) Last but not the least – ALLTHE BEST!!!!
SOLUTION FOR WATER CRISIS
Water Crisis is a term that refers to the status of the world’s water resources relative to human demand. The term has been applied to the worldwide water situation by the United Nations and other world organizations. The major aspects of the water crisis are overall scarcity of usable water and water pollution.
The best way to provide drinking water for all is by saving water .Here are some ways that how we can save water. Never put water down the drain when there may be another use for it such as watering a plant or garden, or cleaning. Verify that your home is leak-free, because many homes have hidden water leaks. Read your water meter before and after a two-hour period when no water is being used. If the meter does not read exactly the same, there is a leak. Repair dripping faucets by replacing washers. If your faucet is dripping at the rate of one drop per second, you can expect to waste 2,700 gallons per year which will add to the cost of water and sewer utilities, or strain your septic system. Check for toilet tank leaks by adding food coloring to the tank. If the toilet is leaking, color will appear within 30 minutes. Check the toilet for worn out, corroded or bent parts. Most replacement parts are inexpensive, readily available and easily installed. (Flush as soon as test is done, since food coloring may stain tank.) Avoid flushing the toilet unnecessarily. Dispose of tissues, insects and other such waste in the trash rather than the toilet. Take shorter showers. Replace you showerhead with an ultra-low-flow version. Some units are available that allow you to cut off the flow without adjusting the water temperature knobs. Use the minimum amount of water needed for a bath by closing the drain first and filling the tub only 1/3 full. Stopper tub before turning water. The initial burst of cold water can be warmed by adding hot water later. Don’t let water run while shaving or washing your face. Brush your teeth first while waiting for water to get hot, then wash or shave after filling the basin. Retrofit all wasteful household faucets by installing aerators with flow restrictors. Operate automatic dishwashers and clothes washers only when they are fully loaded or properly set the water level for the size of load you are using. When washing dishes by hand, fill one sink or basin with soapy water. Quickly rinse under a slow-moving stream from the faucet. Store drinking water in the refrigerator rather than letting the tap run every time you want a cool glass of water. Do not use running water to thaw meat or other frozen foods. Defrost food overnight in the refrigerator or by using the defrost setting on your microwave. Kitchen sink disposals require lots of water to operate properly. Start a compost pile as an alternate method of disposing food waste instead of using a garbage disposal. Garbage disposals also can add 50% to the volume of solids in a septic tank which can lead to malfunctions and maintenance problems. Consider installing an instant water heater on your kitchen sink so you don’t have to let the water run while it heats up. This will reduce heating costs for your household. . Insulate your water pipes. You’ll get hot water faster plus avoid wasting water while it heats up. Never install a water-to-air heat pump or air-conditioning system. Air-to-air models are just as efficient and do not waste water. Install water softening systems only when necessary. Save water and salt by running the minimum amount of regenerations necessary to maintain water softness. Turn softeners off while on vacation. Check your pump. If you have a well at your home, listen to see if the pump kicks on and off while the water is not in use. If it does, you have a leak. When adjusting water temperatures, instead of turning water flow up, try turning it down. If the water is too hot or cold, turn the offender down rather than increasing water flow to balance the temperatures. If the toilet flush handle frequently sticks in the flush position, letting water run constantly, replace or adjust it.
KIDNEYS AND ITS MALFUNCTIONS
Kidney, one of a pair of organs, whose function is the elaboration and excretion of urine.
In humans, kidneys are situated one on each side of the spine, and are embedded in fatty tissue. They are bean-shaped, possessing a convex outer border and a concave inner border. The inner border presents an indentation, the hilum, at which the blood vessels enter and leave. In front is the renal vein carrying blood from the kidney; behind it lies the renal artery carrying blood to the kidney. Most posterior is the ureter, a tube that conveys urine to the bladder. The hilum arises from a deeper indentation, the sinus of the kidney, in which the ureter dilates to form a small sac, the renal pelvis. The kidney also embodies glomeruli, aggregations or loops of capillaries enclosed within thin envelopes of endothelial lining called Bowman’s capsules, located at the blind ends of the renal tubules.
Urine is produced in the glomeruli and renal tubules and carried to the renal pelvis by collecting tubules. The glomeruli act as simple filters, through which water, salts, and waste products from the blood pass into the spaces of Bowman’s capsules and from there down into the renal tubules.
Kidneys are also important in maintaining a balance of fluid and salt and a normal degree of acidity. The main function of the kidneys is to remove waste products and excess water from the blood. The kidneys process about 200 liters of blood every day and produce about two liters of urine. The kidney is one of the major organs involved in whole-body homeostasis. Among its homeostatic functions are acid-base balance, regulation of electrolyte concentrations, control of blood volume, and regulation of blood pressure. The kidneys accomplish these homeostatic functions independently and through coordination with other organs, particularly those of the endocrine system. The kidney communicates with these organs through hormones secreted into the bloodstream.
DISEASES AFFECTING THE KIDNEY
The urinary tract can become blocked, or obstructed. The buildup of urine can lead to infection and injury of the kidney. With a kidney stone, often the blockage is painful. Other obstructions may produce no symptoms and be detected only when a blood or urine test is abnormal or an imaging procedure, such as an x-ray or ultrasound, detects it.
Urinary tract infections, such as cystitis (an infection of the bladder), can lead to more serious infections further up the urinary tract. Symptoms include fever, frequent urination, sudden and urgent need to urinate, and pain or a burning feeling during urination. There is often pressure or pain in the lower abdomen or back
Nephritis, or inflammation of the kidney, is one of the commonest kidney diseases. Its chief characteristics are the appearance in the urine of such elements as albumin, a condition known as albuminuria; red and white blood cells; and hyaline or granular casts, all revealed by microscopic examination of the urine. It is much more common in childhood and adolescence than in middle age.
Nephrosclerosis, or hardening of the small arteries supplying the kidney, is a disorder characterized by the presence of albumin, casts, and occasionally white or red blood cells in the urine (haematuria); it usually accompanies hypertensive vascular disease. Its fundamental lesion is a sclerosis of the small arteries of the kidney, with secondary atrophy of the glomeruli and pathological changes in the interstitial tissue.
Renal calculi, or kidney stones, may form in the kidney or renal pelvis from crystals deposited from the urine. They are composed mostly of calcium oxalate. Infection or obstruction may play a part in their formation. Sometimes they occur when the level of blood calcium is abnormally high, as may be the case when the parathyroid glands overproduce urine. Occasionally, stones may develop when the blood level of uric acid is too high , usually from overconsumption of meat. Excessive dietary intake of calcium and oxalate and low fluid intake have also been associated with formation of stones. In most cases, however, the cause is not known. Stones may cause bleeding, secondary infection, or obstruction. Small kidney stones tend to travel down the ureter towards the bladder; their movement is usually accompanied by severe pain. Colic caused by stones usually requires one or more injections of painkilling drugs for relief. The pain may develop suddenly after muscular exercise. Once a stone drops into the bladder, it may be passed with the urine unnoticed, and the pain ceases. If the stone is too large to pass, treatment is necessary, either with surgery or with lithotripsy, a procedure that uses shock waves generated outside the body to disintegrate the stones.
Uraemia is poisoning caused by accumulation in the blood of waste products normally excreted by the kidney. It occurs most often as the end stage of chronic kidney disease and is characterized by drowsiness, headache, nausea, inability to sleep, spasms, seizures, and coma. Prognosis is poor. By the 1980s, however, such techniques as repeated periodic dialysis to clear the blood of accumulated waste products and toxins, and kidney-transplant operations, offered new hope to patients. See Surgery; Transplantation, Medical.
Pyelonephritis is an infection of the kidney with bacteria. Acute pyelonephritis is often accompanied by fever, chills, pain on the affected side, frequent passing of urine and burning on urination. Chronic pyelonephritis is a progressive, usually symptom-free disease that may eventually lead to destruction of the kidney and to uraemia. Pyelonephritis is more common in women than men, and more usual in diabetics.
Wilms’s tumour, a highly malignant form of kidney tumour, is most frequent in young children. Recently devised treatment has brought about a cure in many children with this disease. In systemic lupus erythematosus, which tends to strike women in their thirties more than other groups, the body makes antibodies that damage the kidney.
Chronic nephritis usually presents no symptoms, but the urine will be found to contain albumin and, on microscopic examination, red blood cells. When there is an advanced destruction of kidney tissue with grossly impaired kidney function, patients may develop high blood pressure and die of kidney or heart failure.
In a kidney disease known as albuminuria, serum albumin escapes into the urine. In diabetes mellitus, glucose appears in the urine. Pus and bacteria are present in the urine of those suffering from infectious diseases of the urinary system. Red blood cells indicate possible haemorrhage or cancer in the urinary tract, or cystitis (inflammation of the bladder). Crystals of sulpha drugs indicate deposition of these drugs in the kidneys. Crystals of various substances also appear in the urine when stones form in the urinary system. A urinary stone may be passed with the urine, causing severe pain and sometimes haemorrhage.
What is polycystic kidney disease (PKD)?
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts filled with fluid in the kidneys. PKD cysts can reduce kidney function, leading to kidney failure. PKD can also cause cysts in the liver and problems in other organs, such as the heart and blood vessels in the brain.
Membranous nephropathy (also called membranous glomerulonephritis or just plain “membranous”) is one of the most common causes of nephrotic syndrome in adults without diabetes. The term “membranous” refers to the thickening of the glomerular basement membrane when viewed under a microscope.
What Is a Horseshoe Kidney?
Normally, there are two separate kidneys located deep in the back under the protection of abdominal muscles and ribs. With a horseshoe kidney, the two kidneys are actually fused together (thus giving it a horseshoe appearance). The tissue connecting the kidneys is called the isthmus. A horseshoe kidney is remarkable because of its unusual location, its abnormal orientation, its unusual blood supply, and the problematic placement of the ureters into it. All of this can lead to a higher risk of kidney disease and complications.
Kidney Cancers: There is a higher risk of kidney cancer with a horseshoe kidney. The most common are: Wilm’s tumor, transitional cell cancer and carcinoid tumor. Despite the higher risk, the overall risk is relatively low. As a result, there are currently no formal recommendations for regular cancer screening for those with a horseshoe kidney.
What Is Water Intoxication?
Every now and then there is a report in the news about someone dying of water intoxication. It usually gets a lot of attention because the headlines are so shocking. How is it that drinking water killed someone, especially when they are so young and healthy! What is worse, it seems to fly in the face of conventional wisdom that you need to be drinking more water not less.
Water intoxication is a condition where the body’s level of sodium has been rapidly diluted with too much water. It is also known as hyponatremia or hyperhydration. Sodium is an important electrolyte that helps regulates the body’s fluids. When the body’s sodium level is changed rapidly by drinking a lot of water, the extra water then causes the cells in the body to swell and malfunction. The cells in the nervous system are particularly sensitive and can lead to symptoms that can mimic alcohol intoxication. Hence the name water intoxication.
When Does Fatal Water Intoxication Tend To Happen?
When somebody dies of water intoxication, it is usually caused by the combination of a very large amount of water (often 5 liters or more) over a relatively short period of time (minutes to hours).
• Excessive Sweating: Some of the most famous cases of water intoxication have involved athletes. They got in trouble because they were losing larges amounts of both water and sodium in their sweat but they were replacing their fluid loses with water only. The use of electrolyte solutions instead of water to prevent dehydration reduces the risk substantially.
• Binge Drinking: There have been at least two reported cases of people dying from binge drinking as part of drinking contests and fraternity hazing. These deaths were completely preventable.
• Drug Use: Water intoxication has occurred in people trying to dilute their urine to pass a drug test. There have been at least two cases of teenagers dying after using ecstasy and then drinking excessive water. Impairment of the kidney’s ability to remove the extra fluid by the drugs (particularly ecstasy) was an important factor in their deaths.
• Other Cases: There have been a number of other cases involving giving the wrong intravenous fluids in the hospital, feeding infants water only by mistake, and excessive consumption of beer.
What You Can Do to Protect Yourself
The best way to protect yourself is to recognize if you are really at risk. If you plan on performing heavy exertion, especially in the heat, plan on replacing the fluids you are losing with an electrolyte solution. Unless you have a medical condition that requires drinking very high levels of water, such as kidney stones, don’t drink more than moderates amounts of water (2 liters a day).
Although the long-term prognosis for having a solitary kidney is excellent, special precautions and close monitoring for kidney disease are important.
ONLY ONE KIDNEY IN THE BODY
Consequences of Having One Kidney
Because one kidney can perform the job of two, the long term prognosis of having a solitary kidney is very good. However, longterm follow-up studies of people with only one kidney have identified areas of concern:
• High Blood Pressure: Many people with one kidney experience a slightly higher than normal rise in their blood pressure. This rise is relatively modest and often easily treated.
• Decreased Kidney Function: The remaining kidney tries to make up for the reduced kidney function caused by having only one kidney. This compensation isn’t usually 100% so there is usually a reduction in GFR. In the absence of kidney disease and stable kidney function, it is not usually a problem.
• Protein in Urine: Having one kidney can lead to some mild loss of protein in the urine, but it is not a sign of serious kidney disease.
Most people with a solitary kidney do very well but if something happens to that kidney, it can be a big problem. To help protect the this kidney, there are a few precautions you need to consider:
• Limiting Protein: Some people talk of limiting your protein intake, but unless you are truly eating an excessive amount or your kidney function is poor, it is not usually absolutely indicated.
• Checking Blood Pressure: Controlling high blood pressure is extremely important because of the damage it can cause kidneys.
• Screening for Kidney Disease: When it comes to identifying kidney disease in someone with reduced kidney function, sooner the better. This means periodically checking for protein in the urine and monitoring kidney function with an estimated GFR.
• Avoid Injury: Protecting your remaining kidney is very important. This means avoiding medications and toxins known to harm the kidney as well as trauma and other physical injury.
Participating in Sports
The most common cause of kidney injury from trauma is due to motor vehicle accidents and penetrating wounds. However, many doctors would rather err on the side of caution and recommend avoiding sports with heavy contact or collision such as:
• Boxing, wrestling, lacrosse, body building, rodeo, and martial arts
• Football, soccer, basketball, hockey, diving, and water polo
• Bike riding, Skate boarding, inline skating, and snowboarding
Because the kidneys are less protected by the ribs in children, there is an increased risk of kidney trauma. However, when compared to motor vehicle accidents and penetrating wounds, the risk of participating in sports is substantially less. At the present time, there is no consensus on whether children with a solitary kidney should participate in sports or not.
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease is when one suffers from gradual and usually permanent loss of kidney function over time. This happens gradually over time, usually months to years. Chronic kidney disease is divided into five stages of increasing severity. Stage 5 chronic kidney failure is also referred to as end-stage renal disease, wherein there is total or near-total loss of kidney function and patients need dialysis or transplantation to stay alive. The term “renal” refers to the kidney, so another name for kidney failure is “renal failure.” Mild kidney disease is often called renal insufficiency.
Unlike chronic kidney disease, acute kidney failure develops rapidly, over days or weeks.
Acute kidney failure usually develops in response to a disorder that directly affects the kidney, its blood supply, or urine flow from it.
Acute kidney failure usually does not cause permanent damage to the kidneys. With appropriate treatment of the underlying condition, it is often reversible, with complete recovery.
What is the difference between kidney failure and kidney disease?
Kidney failure occurs when the kidneys partly or completely lose their ability to carry out normal functions.
This is dangerous because water, waste, and toxic substances build up that normally are removed from the body by the kidneys.
It also causes other problems such as anemia, high blood pressure, acidosis (excessive acidity of body fluids), disorders of cholesterol and fatty acids, and bone disease in the body by impairing hormone production by the kidneys.
Generally, humans can live normally with just one kidney, as one has more functioning renal tissue than is needed to survive, possibly due to the nature of the prehistoric human diet. Only when the amount of functioning kidney tissue is greatly diminished will Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease develop. If the glomerular filtration rate (a measure of renal function) has fallen very low ( Stage 5 Chronic Kidney Disease), or if the renal dysfunction leads to severe symptoms, then renal replacement therapy is indicated, either dialysis or kidney transplantation